The research consisted of three elements including a literature review of key insights into gambling product messaging and related public health areas including tobacco, alcohol and junk food consumption, and two-stages of empirical research (quantitative and qualitative). 

It was found that no identifiable message types were more, or less, effective than each other in facilitating positive behavioural change regarding amounts wagered and time spent gambling. 

The  study was  led  by  researchers at  Central Queensland University.